War of the Roses
This is only a brief description of the war and if you want to know more get a good book from the library,search the Internet or visit BARNET MUSEUM. We hope you enjoy and realise just how important THE BATTLE of BARNET was in history.
In order to understand the importance of THE BATTLE of BARNET it is equally important to understand why and how the War of the Roses happened, with all the intrigue and treachery that had Englishmen fighting Englishmen for over thirty years, from 1455 to 1487. It was a power struggle between the two most powerful families in England.
The symbol of the York family was a White Rose and a Red Rose for the Lancaster family.
This popular English flower would show which side your loyalties lay although the term The War of the Roses would not be used until writers such as WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE wrote about it many years after the battles that took place all over England to decide who would be king.
To know more about the reasons why such a bloody civil war would last so long it might be helpful to learn more about the main players. None of this would have happened if the Plantagenet KING EDWARD III (born 1312) had not married PHILIPPA of HAINAULT of Belgium, (born 1311).
This marriage lasted for 41 years until the queens death of the plague in 1369
KING EDWARD III was born in Windsor Castle on 13th November 1312.
He was the son of EDWARD II and ascended to the throne in 1327 at the age of 14, reigning for 50 years. He married PHILIPPA in 1328 when he was 16 and she was only 14.
This was an arranged marriage, and she bore him thirteen children. Of these, five were sons who lived into adulthood and their rivalry would eventually bring about the long-running civil wars known as the Wars of the Roses.
The Children were:
Edward Plantagenet (The Black Prince) 15th June 1330
Isabel Plantagenet 16th June 1332
Joan Plantagenet 1335
William Plantagenet 1336
Lionel of Antwerp, Duke of Clarence 29th November 1338
John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster 24th June 1340
Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York 5th June 1341
Blanche Plantagenet Born & died: March 1342
Mary Plantagenet 10th October 1344
Margaret Plantagenet 20th July 1346
Thomas Plantagenet Unknown birth
William Plantagenet June 1348
Thomas of Woodstock, 1st Duke of Gloucester 7th January 1355
though he was married and the father of many children Edward was always
dominated by his mother ISABELLA (12961358).
the death of his father EDWARD III was quickly crowned king of England,
although it would take a few years for him to gain complete control of
time it was by his mistress, Alice Perrers. Alice preferred one of Edward's
other sons, JOHN OF GAUNT over the Black Prince which caused political
conflicts in Edward's last years.
of LANGLEY was called "of Langley" because of his his birthplace
at the Royal Palace of Kings Langley in Hertfordshire. He was the fifth
son of King Edward III, and he too was a soldier who fought against the
THE BLACK PRINCE had married JOAN THE FAIR MAID OF KENT (born 1328) in 1361 and Richard was their only child.
KING RICHARD II was born in Bordeaux France in 1367.
He succeeded his grandfather and reigned for 22 years before he was deposed. Because he was so young when he became king Richard's uncle John of Gaunt was put in charge of the country.
Just over ten years later Richard regained control and in 1382 he married ANNE of BOHEMIA, (born 1366). When ANNE died in 1394 Richard married ISABELLE, daughter of Charles VI of France, which was mainly a political arrangement rather than to provide heirs to the throne HENRY BOLINGBROKE, DUKE OF LANCASTER (the son of JOHN OF GAUNT) had an on/off relationship with his cousin Richard and in 1398 the increasingly suspicious king banished Henry for ten years.
When John of Gaunt died in February 1399 Richard stopped Henry from inheriting his fathers estates.
This was to be Richards downfall.
While he was in Ireland gathering an army Henry, (who had been exiled in France) landed at Ravenspur in Yorkshire, declaring that he had come to claim his lawful rights to his fathers land. He soon collected an army and from York he led a march across England to Bristol while Richard returned to the country via Wales, trying to gather forces as he went.
The Welsh saw that they faced an impossible task against what was now a large army backing Henry and at Flint Castle Richard was captured by the new sovereign to the throne. He was marched to London and imprisonment in the tower.
Richard was then taken to Pontefract Castle where he was probably murdered and Henry the Duke of Lancaster became KING HENRY IV in 1399. Richards death was not officially announced (due to the fact that some believed he was still alive) until February 1400. Then it was let known that the old king had died from starvation due to his hunger strike (his body was exhibited in London).
Because Richard left no heir to the throne a long struggle began for the crown by the descendants of EDWARD III
HENRY IV was born in Bolingbroke Castle in 1367,the son of JOHN OF GAUNT and BLANCHE OF LANCASTER. He married MARY BOHUN (in 1380) and she bore him seven children before her death in 1394.
Only one of them, HENRY of LANCASTER (born 1387), would have any real bearing on the civil wars which followed. In 1402 Henry remarried, taking as his bride Joan of Navarre.
From Henry's reign in 1399 until the year 1410 rebellions were happening all over England. These he firmly put down and there were no other uprisings until 1455, which was the start of the War of the Roses.
He had ruled England for 14 years until his death in Westminster Abbey in 1413 at the age of 46. The peace in the country was kept by his son Henry, the fifth king of England to have that name. When he came to the throne in 1413 he was 26.
HENRY V was born in Monmouth in 1387 and did much to restore confidence in the House of Lancaster during his 9-year reign. This was the king who was to have the famous victory against the French at Agincourt in 1415.
This has been written about by Shakespeare and made into a superb film starring Laurence Oliver as the king, and featuring the famous speech to his troops.
In 1420 he married CATHERINE of VALOIS (born 1401) the daughter of the King of France. After Henry Vs death she married OWEN TUDOR in 1429,which led to the house of Tudor ruling England before the end of the century (1486)
Within two years of their marriage, in August 1422, HENRY V died, probably after becoming ill with dysentery.
He was just 35. Now it was the turn of his only son, HENRY VI of Lancaster, who became king of England and France, all at the age of nine months.
An important part of the War of the Roses happened then as future kings argued about the validity of Henry taking over the throne. Now there were descendants of two of EDWARD III sons, JOHN OF GAUNT, DUKE OF LANCASTER and EDMUND LANGLY, DUKE OF YORK. The country was split as neighbour argued against neighbour as to who they thought was the rightful king of England.KING HENRY VI was born at Windsor Castle in 1421 and was proclaimed king as an infant in 1422. He ruled England until 1461 and again from 1470 to 1471. But he was not like his brave father. Because of his own weakness and that of his government it was not long before he lost France. Only Calais remained under the control of the English. He was pious and devoted to education, but lacked the governing and military skills to run a country.
RICHARD PLANTAGENET (born 1411) was the great grandson of Edward III. In 1424 he married CECILY NEVILLE (born 1415). They had many children including EDWARD of YORK, who would become EDWARD IV and RICHARD of YORK, who would become RICHARD III. Although he never became king the Duke would play a vital part in the future of England.
The following year,1454, Henry recovered and he and Richard disagreed about who should run the country. During the king's bad health and the birth of her son it was Margaret and her favourites Lord Somerset (Edmund Beaufort) and The Duke of Buckingham that tried to hold onto the kingdom.
for Somerset he also had a private feud in the North with the NEVILLES,
a very powerful family. When York became Protector Somerset found himself
thrown out of court and into the Tower of London.
The Yorkists gained popular support as a result of the failure of the English armies in the Hundred Years War and the corruption in Henry's court. Richard now knew that his only way to gain the throne was in battle against his family. In May 1455 the Queen MARGARET and Somerset called a meeting of the Council at Leicester, which included none of York's supporters.
But Richard did have the support of RICHARD NEVILLE, 16th EARL OF WARWICK (born 1428 - Died in BARNET on April 14, 1471), who was to become known as "WARWICK THE KINGMAKER."War was about to break out. As Richard led a large force of men towards London Henry moved his forces out of the capital to intercept the Yorkist army. He stopped his march in the town of St Albans in Hertfordshire and waited.
He was the richest man in England, outside the royal family, and was a key player for the Yorkists during the Wars of the Roses as well as being a victim at The Battle of Barnet.
Both his daughters married into royalty (Anne to Edward,Prince of Wales,son of King Henry VI and also to Richard III, and Isabel to George, Duke of Clarence brother of King Edward IV).
Warwick was a very important man and his death, in or around Hadley,changed the course of English history.
On the 22nd of May 1455 Richard attacked and defeated Henry, inflicting many casualties. Lord Somerset was hacked to death in front of the Castle Inn in the town while The Duke of Buckingham and his son were wounded by arrows. The king was also slightly wounded in the main street. Here he was discovered by The Duke of York who spared him as he again seized control of Henry, regained the Protectorship, and appointed Warwick captain of Calais.
This was THE FIRST BATTLE OF SAINT ALBANS.
There was to be no more fighting for the next three years but quite a lot of political manoeuvring. In February 1456 King Henry recovered from his second bout of madness and York was again removed from power.
Warwick refused to surrender Calais to the Queen and it remained a Yorkist base, which proved to be quite useful.
With the birth of a son Henry now had an heir and Lancaster had a rallying point. Queen Margaret, in order to protect her son's birthright, now became more involved in political matters and for the next two years removed Yorkist sympathisers from royal office.
With York away from the centre of power and Warwick disgraced, Margaret decided to make her move.
She summoned a council meeting for all the great nobles, excluding York and Warwick, to meet in Coventry in June 1459. Both were charged with treason. It was expected that this would remove Richard 's power but he contacted his allies.
They planned to meet at Ludlow and attempt to seize the king.
Over the past three years Margaret of Anjou had maintained pressure to end Yorkist claims to the throne.
She ordered a Lancastrian general (Lord Audley) to intercept Lord Salisbury's force to prevent it joining with York and Warwick's troops at Ludlow.
On the morning of 23 September 1459 the two armies met a mile north of the village of Blore Heath. The two sides faced up on the heath, the Yorkists on the south and the Lancastrians on the north, both parallel to Wemberton Brook.
Salisbury realised that he was outnumbered and so ordered his centre to withdraw beyond the woods.
The Lancastrian cavalry, believing this to be a total withdrawal, charged across the brook towards the Yorkist centre.The Yorkists were lined up at the top of a slope and a hail of arrows soon made the Lancastrians withdraw.
A second attack was also repelled and Lord Audley was killed. Lord Dudley (later captured) now took leadership of the Lancastrian forces and ordered a large proportion of the cavalry to dismount. There now followed several hours of fierce hand-to-hand fighting and the remaining Lancastrian cavalry, realising the fight was not going well, left the field.
With the expected cavalry support not arriving the Lancastrians began to give way, with as many as five hundred deserting to the Yorkist side.
The Lancastrian line soon broke and the battle was lost. The pursuit of fleeing Lancastrians lasted until the early hours of the next morning. The Lancastrian casualties were close on two thousand, while the Yorkists lost very few men.
After defeating the Lancastrian at THE BATTLE OF BLORE HEATH, Salisbury reached his allies at Ludlow without much trouble.
At Ludford, Richard, Salisbury and Warwick wrote to the King, justifying their actions.
Henry replied by promising to pardon all those who raised arms against him if they joined the Lancastrian army, except for those involved in The Battle at Blore Heath. When they received no answer from the Yorkists the Lancastrians advanced towards Ludlow, reaching Ludford Bridge on 12th October 1459.
Here the Yorkists fortified their position with carts and cannons, and laid ambushes and traps but they were hugely outnumbered.
Then, overnight, troops who came to fight from Calais with Warwick accepted the King's pardon and changed sides.
This strengthened the Lancastrian position even more and made the Yorkist position hopeless. During the night Richard, his two sons, Salisbury and Warwick left the field of battle saying they were returning to Ludlow Castle for the night. From the castle, they quickly collected a few belongings and fled, leaving their army and equipment behind them. THE BATTLE OF LUDFORD BRIDGE was over.
Richard and his second son, Edmund, Earl of Rutland, went to Ireland (York was still the Lieutenant of Ireland). Salisbury, Warwick and York's eldest son Edward, Earl of March went to Calais. Henry and Margaret returned triumphantly to Coventry.
In the morning the Yorkist army, no longer having any leadership, disbanded, and the Lancastrians sacked both the town and York's castle. Richard also left behind his Duchess Cecily who was arrested with three of his children, Margaret, George and Richard (who would become RICHARD III). If anything had happened to them at that point history would have been altered and a king would not have been looking for a horse.
Battle at Ludford Bridge was a disaster for the Yorkists and the Lancastrians
immediately took advantage of it.
Lancastrian army learned of the plans of the Yorkist forces and stopped
at the town of Northampton to build up a defensive position. When Warwick
received news that the king's army, under the leadership of the Duke of
Buckingham, had made camp in a meadow outside the city walls he spent
many hours trying to contact the King and negotiate a settlement. Henry
refuses to listen. No doubt influenced by Buckingham,who wanted a battle
with the Yorkists before they were joined by York ( on his way from Ireland)
and Salisbury. But it was the York force who attacked first.
early December 1460 Richard and The Earl of Salisbury marched out of London
with about 5,000 men. The Earl of Warwick was left to maintain control
of the capital and guard the king. York headed for Wakefield, recruiting
more troops on the way. When he arrived he set his men to building trenches
and positioning guns at his castle to be in a good defensive position
if the Lancastrians attacked.
When Richard's eldest son Edward, Earl of March, heard of the disaster at Wakefield he decided to move east to link-up with Warwick in London. During this movement he learnt of a Lancastrian force located in central Wales. Edward decided to change direction and engage the enemy. His army of mostly Welshmen were up against a Lancastrian army of mercenaries from France, Ireland and Wales.
On the morning of 2nd February 1461 Edward's forces meet with their Lancastrian rivals at Mortimors Cross.
The Lancastrians moved into the battle first,advancing across the frozen fields towards the waiting Yorkists.
Once more it was the archers of York who did damage with a barrage of arrows that struck the un-armoured foot soldiers. Edward advanced and the Lancastrians broke and scattered. About 4,000 men were killed in the battle, mostly wearing the emblem of the Red Rose, while Edward's losses were light.
The Yorkists pursued the fleeing Lancastrians all the way to Hereford. There, after a brief skirmish, the remaining Lancastrian were captured and some were executed in Hereford market place.
THE BATTLE OF MORTIMOR'S CROSS was the first in a line of victories for Edward. It showed the Lancastrians that the new head of the House of York was a man to be feared. After the battle Edward continued his march eastward to join Warwick near London.
Margaret had been marching south at the head of an army provided by Queen Mary of Scotland when The Battle of Mortimor's Cross took place. In return for these troops Margaret had agreed to marry Prince Edward to Margaret Stewart, Marys daughter. This never happened.
The main Lancastrian army was camped near York and the two forces planned to meet up and march to London.
Margaret reached York on 20th January 1461 where her troops met up with the main Lancastrian army. As this army moved south it was also joined by some of the Welsh soldiers escaping from Mortimors Cross.
The Lancastrians had by far the greater number of nobles in their ranks, however it also included many who were unreliable. The army had been recruited quickly. The further south they marched the more it began to disintegrate and the captains had trouble maintaining discipline. Many towns, particularly those with Yorkist sympathies, suffered a great deal of damage from the Lancastrian army as they passed through on their way south. One of these could have been BARNET.
There was panic in London and citizens began to board up their homes and bury their possessions. A great number of armed men began arriving in London voluntarily, offering to join the Earl of Warwick, as they believed he would save the south from the northern hordes.
On 12th February 1461 Warwick marched out of London, with an army slightly smaller than the Queens. He took Henry VI with him under guard. The Yorkists arrived in St Albans the following day and Warwick spent time reinforcing his position.
The Yorkist armys information was not very good and Warwick was unsure how close to St Albans the Lancastrian army was. Late on 16 February 1461, Warwick received news of the Yorkist outpost at Dunstable. It had been overrun by Lancastrians and the entire force of two hundred men had been killed or captured. As this news could not be verified Warwick chose to ignore it. The Yorkist troops did not even man the town gates, instead they waited for Edward's army, victorious at Mortimor's Cross, to join them.
Before the Yorkists could link up the Lancastrians attacked early in the morning of 17th February 1461. They entered the town from the northwest and surprised Warwick. The Lancastrians fought with the Yorkists in the market square, but were pushed back by Warwicks archers. His cannons were almost useless, as snow had started to fall, dampening the gunpowder. The fighting continued until dusk, but the Lancastrians were eventually able to break through the Yorkist lines.
Warwick sounded the retreat and withdrew some of his troops into a defensive position to the north of St Albans. The rest of the army remained in the field, until they fled, pursued by the Lancastrians. Warwick withdrew from St Albans that night with a force of 4,000 men, and hoped to link up with Edward at York.
THE (SECOND) BATTLE OF ST ALBANS was a significant victory for the Lancastrians as not only was it a defeat for the Yorkists but also a political disaster.
Warwick had left Henry VI under the guard of Lord Bonville and Sir Thomas Kyre but the Lancastrians had quickly arrested them and Henry was returned to his wife and son. The two guards were brought before the Queen and her 7 year old son,the Prince.
It was reported that Margaret asked the young Prince of Wales how the knights should die and he replied "Let there heads be taken off" which they were. Nice boy but it was a time when savage revenge came from the victors.
With the king again in their possession and the Yorkist army scattered, the way to London lay open to the Lancastrians.
When Edward, Earl of March, now calling himself The Duke of York, entered London he was cheered and welcomed by the Londoners as a hero. It now became clear to the Yorkists that they no longer needed Henry under their control.
They would crown their own sovereign. On the 4th March 1461 in the Great Hall of the Palace of Westminster Edward was formally proclaimed KING EDWARD IV OF YORK and England. He was taken there by "The Kingmaker" Richard Neville. KING EDWARD IV was born on 11th February 1442 in Rouen France and he married ELIZABETH WOODEVILLE (1437-1492) in secret in 1464, partly because The Earl of Warwick had other marriage plans for him and partly because of Elizabeth's Lancastrian connections.
The marriage was soon made public and Elizabeth's large family received numerous royal favours.
They had 10 children who were: Elizabeth of York * Mary * Cicely * Edward (V) * Margaret * Richard, Duke of York * Anne * George, Duke of Bedford * Catherine and Bridget.
Elizabeth was the daughter of Richard Woodville and her first husband, Sir John Grey, was killed fighting on the Lancastrian side at The Battle of St. Albans (1461).
The marriage to Elizabeth was to become the root of many future troubles
proclaiming himself king, Edward IV, with Warwick by his side, gathered
the largest force a king had ever put together and marched north toward
the Lancastrian position behind the Aire River.
March 29th 1461, the day after THE BATTLE OF FERRYBRIDGE, the Yorkist
forces attacked the Lancastrians up a sloping hill between the villages
of Towton and Saxton (about 12 miles from York) Using the snow and the
wind direction to their advantage, Edwards archers were able to shoot
farther than their enemies.
battle had started about 10'o clock in the morning and it would be the
longest and largest of any battle of the Wars. The field in which the
battle was fought would later be known as "Bloody Meadow".
It is estimated that about 20,000 men died in the battle, some have
put it as high as 36,000. However, this number includes only the dead
on the battlefield. Many more were killed during the rout.
in 1464 the Duke of Somerset, who had been pardoned by Edward, decided
to join the remaining Lancastrian sympathisers. They managed to secure
the castle of Norham.
15th May 1464 the Yorkists reached Hexham, taking the Lancastrians totally
by surprise. Somerset had no chance to move his troops into an advantageous
position. He was obliged to form a line at the base of a hill on which
the Yorkists had already taken up position.
eight years of ruling the country Edward IV began to drift apart from
many of the nobles and his friends. This was MAINLY due to his marriage
to Elizabeth Woodville. Richard Neville and his brothers had been among
the strongest, most loyal, and most successful of the Yorkist supporters
but now that the fighting was over they found themselves being pushed
out of government by the influence of King Edwards wife.
was born on 21st October 1449 in Dublin. He was the third son of Richard
Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York.
Edward reached Newark with a small army he realised the threat from
the Lancastrians was greater than he thought. He turned south
to Nottingham to recruit troops and await the arrival of reinforcements.
the Lancastrians attacked the next morning the Yorkists had to face
the attack alone as there was not enough time for the other half of
their army to arrive. Without many archers the Yorkists were forced
to retreat. It was not until the afternoon that both armies were able
to join up. About the same time some of Warwick's forces starting arriving
to reinforce their companions. The Royal York army thought Warwick's
entire forces had arrived and it was their turn to break ranks and
soon found that it was easier to capture Edward than to govern through
him. Edward refused to be a puppet king and when the news of his capture
reached London violence broke out. This spread throughout the country
as the absence of royal authority resumed feuds between nobles. Added
to this was the more serious threat of Lancastrian uprisings. Warwick,
realising he was losing control, needed the king's authority to restore
first stop in France for Clarence and Warwick was the court of King
Louis XI. Here they would do a deal to restore Henry VI (who was still
in the Tower of London) to the throne. Within a few
months he had a fleet of about sixty ships, most of which had been acquired
through piracy. Now he had the support from Queen Margaret, die-hard
Lancastrians, and his own powerful family.
Although in exile Edward was not without resources and supporters. With a large loan from the Duke of Burgundy Edward managed to assemble a fleet of thirty-six ships. The trouble was he only had about twelve hundred men.
This was quite a small force for conquering a kingdom such as England but Edward was relying on rallying men to his cause after he had landed. Edward sailed on 11th March 1471 and when he landed on the Humber River there was scarcely any opposition. He had been right in assuming that loyal supporters would flock to his side as he marched south.
He entered London without a battle in April 1471. But there was still the Earl of Warwick to deal with.
Although Warwick and his supporters managed to bring large forces against him Edward was a better General. By sudden movements and tactical warfare, Edward's small army managed to scatter and confuse Warwick's Lancastrians.
Edward's disloyal brother George, seeing the error of his ways, asked for forgiveness again. After returning King Henry to the Tower Edward went to Westminster to greet his wife and children who had been living in sanctuary for the past several months. His army was now considerably stronger and Edward headed back to the north to meet Warwick.
had gone to Northumbria, the heart of the Neville strongholds, to raise
men and was marching south. Edward left London on the 13th April 1471
and the two forces met on the outskirts of Barnet, with the King taking
up his position during the night.
The rest of Edwards reign was peaceful and prosperous. He died of a sudden illness on 9th April 1483 when he was only thirty-nine. He had two sons still alive (Edward and Richard) both just young boys. Because of this Parliament made his brother Richard, Duke of Gloucester, the Lord Protector of the realm. Richard was well liked, a good soldier and general. He had been loyal to his brother and he quickly become the most powerful man in the kingdom.
EDWARD V,KING of ENGLAND was born on the 4th November 1470 in London and died September 1483 in London.
His coronation date was set for May 4, 1483.
However, Richard said that he had discovered evidence that his brother's marriage to Elizabeth Woodville had not been legal and that therefore the two boys were illegitimate and could not inherit the throne.
On his way to London for his coronation, Edward was intercepted and detained by Richard. The coronation was cancelled and Edward placed in a secure "royal residence" in the Tower of London.
His brother, Richard, joined him in mid-June of the same year.
Later that same month the young king was declared illegitimate by Parliament because the marriage of his father to his mother (Elizabeth Woodville) was declared illegal.
The two young princes never left the Tower again.
But when Edward died and Edward V was too young to rule himself Richard seemed to change as he set his sights on the throne. He was a successful administrator, but many in power mistrusted him.
Richard married Anne Neville (1426 - 1492) daughter of Warwick the Kingmaker on July 12, 1472 at Westminster Abbey.
All seemed to be going Richards way but one of the few remaining heirs of Lancaster was living on the Continent.
His name was HENRY TUDOR and he had a claim to the throne being the grandson of Owen Tudor and Catherine of Valois, who had been Queen to HENRY V. Also his father Edmund had married Margaret Beaufort who was descended from King Edward III's son John of Gaunt.
He was now known as the Earl of Richmond and formed an alliance with Elizabeth Woodville, the ex-Queen to Henry IV. He proclaimed himself 'the very heir of Lancaster'. The other reason the Tudor claim to the throne was so strong was because most of the major Lancastrian and Yorkist candidates had killed each other during the thirty years of warfare.
With support from the French king the disaffected Woodville lords and Lancastrian sympathisers Henry Tudor landed with a small force on August 7th 1485 at Milford Haven in Pembrokeshire. This was a stronghold of anti-Richard feelings.
He quickly gathered an army and advanced to meet Richard's forces.
The two armies met at Bosworth Field on August 22, 1485. Richard fought bravely and could have won the battle had not one of his lords suddenly defected to the Lancastrian side. After a fierce but brief struggle the king was unhorsed and killed.
THE BATTLE OF BOSWORTH FIELD is probably one of the best known battles of the War of the Roses.
Made famous the Laurence Olivier portrayal of Richard III . When news of the king's death reached the Royal army the troops once again ran in panic. Richard's body was taken to Leicester where it was stripped and exposed to the public for two days.
He was buried in the Grey Friars church in Leicester but his grave was lost during the reign of HENRY VIII.
Richard III was the last English monarch to personally fight in battle beside his troops in war.
In January of the following year Henry married Elizabeth Plantagenet, the sister of the two princes who had been murdered in the tower, with the hope that the wars were over.
last spark remained to flare up, however. A group of Yorkist loyalists
made up a plan in a last attempt to regain the crown. Richard Simons,
a priest, and others instructed a commoner by the name of Lambert
Simnel to impersonate the Earl of Warwick, grandson of the late Warwick
Henry VII crushed the Yorkists at THE BATTLE OF STOKE on June 16th 1487 and many people consider this battle as the final conflict in the Wars of the Roses.
So ended the Plantagenet line and a new Tudor dynasty was to begin.